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Reference Ranges

U.S. traditional units are followed in parentheses by equivalent values expressed in S.I. units.

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Hematology
Absolute neutrophil count
  Male — 1780-5380/µL (1.78-5.38 × 109/L)
  Female — 1560-6130/µL (1.56-6.13 × 109/L)
Activated partial thromboplastin time — 25-35 s
Erythrocyte count — 4.2-5.9 × 106/µL (4.2-5.9 × 1012/L)
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  Male — 0-15 mm/h
  Female — 0-20 mm/h
Erythropoietin — less than 19 mU/mL (19 U/L)
D-Dimer — less than 0.5 µg/mL (0.5 mg/L)
Ferritin, serum — 15-200 ng/mL (15-200 µg/L)
Haptoglobin, serum — 50-150 mg/dL (500-1500 mg/L)
Hematocrit
  Male — 41%-51%
  Female — 36%-47%
Hemoglobin, blood
  Male — 14-17 g/dL (140-170 g/L)
  Female — 12-16 g/dL (120-160 g/L)
Leukocyte count — 4000-10,000/µL (4.0-10 × 109/L)
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin — 28-32 pg
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration — 32-36 g/dL (320-360 g/L)
Mean corpuscular volume — 80-100 fL
Platelet count — 150,000-450,000/µL (150-450 × 109/L)
Prothrombin time — 11-13 s
Reticulocyte count — 0.5%-1.5% of erythrocytes; absolute:
23,000-90,000/µL (23-90 × 109/L)

Blood, Plasma, and Serum Chemistry Studies
Albumin, serum — 3.5-5.5 g/dL (35-55 g/L)
Alkaline phosphatase, serum — 36-92 U/L
α-Fetoprotein, serum — 0.6-6.6 ng/mL (0.6-6.6 µg/L)
Aminotransferase, alanine (ALT) — 0-35 U/L
Aminotransferase, aspartate (AST) — 0-35 U/L
Ammonia, plasma — 40-80 µg/dL (23-47 µmol/L)
Amylase, serum — 0-130 U/L
Bicarbonate, serum — 23-28 mEq/L (23-28 mmol/L)
Bilirubin, serum
  Total — 0.3-1.2 mg/dL (5.1-20.5 µmol/L)
  Direct — 0-0.3 mg/dL (0-5.1 µmol/L)
Blood gases, arterial (ambient air)
  pH — 7.38-7.44
  Pco2 — 35-45 mm Hg (4.7-6.0 kPa)
  Po2 — 80-100 mm Hg (10.6-13.3 kPa)
  Oxygen saturation — 95% or greater
Blood urea nitrogen — 8-20 mg/dL (2.9-7.1 mmol/L)
Calcium, serum — 9-10.5 mg/dL (2.2-2.6 mmol/L)
Carbon dioxide, serum — See Bicarbonate
Chloride, serum — 98-106 mEq/L (98-106 mmol/L)
Complement, serum
  C3 — 55-120 mg/dL (550-1200 mg/L)
  C4 — 10-40 mg/dL (100-400 mg/L)
C-reactive protein — 0-0.8 mg/dL (0-8.0 mg/L)
C-reactive protein, high sensitivity, blood
Cardiovascular Risk Prediction
  Low Risk — less than 1.0 mg/L
  Average Risk — 1.0-3.0 mg/L
  High Risk — greater than 3.0 mg/L
Creatine kinase, serum — 30-170 U/L
Creatinine, serum — 0.7-1.3 mg/dL (61.9-115 µmol/L)
Electrolytes, serum
  Sodium — 136-145 mEq/L (136-145 mmol/L)
  Potassium — 3.5-5.0 mEq/L (3.5-5.0 mmol/L)
  Chloride — 98-106 mEq/L (98-106 mmol/L)
  Bicarbonate — 23-28 mEq/L (23-28 mmol/L)
Fibrinogen, plasma — 150-350 mg/dL (1.5-3.5 g/L)
Folate, serum — 2.5-20 ng/mL (5.7-45.3 nmol/L)
Glucose, plasma — fasting, 70-100 mg/dL (3.9-5.6 mmol/L)
γ-Glutamyltransferase, serum — 0-30 U/L
Homocysteine, plasma
  Male — 0.54-2.16 mg/L (4-16 µmol/L)
  Female — 0.41-1.89 mg/L (3-14 µmol/L)
Immunoglobulins
  Globulins, total — 2.5-3.5 g/dL (25-35 g/L)
     IgG — 640-1430 mg/dL (6.4-14.3 g/L)
     IgA — 70-300 mg/dL (0.7-3.0 g/L)
     IgM — 20-140 mg/dL (0.2-1.4 g/L)
     IgD — less than 8 mg/dL (80 mg/L)
     IgE — 0-90 U/mL (0-90 kU/L)
Iron studies
  Ferritin, serum — 15-200 ng/mL (15-200 µg/L)
  Iron, serum — 60-160 µg/dL (11-29 µmol/L)
  Iron-binding capacity, total, serum — 250-460 µg/dL (45-82 µmol/L)
  Transferrin saturation — 20%-50%
Lactate dehydrogenase, serum — 60-100 U/L
Lactate, plasma — 0.5-2.2 mEq/L (0.5-2.2 mmol/L)
Lipase, serum — 13-60 U/L
Magnesium, serum — 1.5-2.4 mg/dL (0.62-0.99 mmol/L)
Methylmalonic acid, serum — 150-370 nmol/L
Osmolality, plasma — 275-295 mOsm/kg H2O
Phosphatase, alkaline, serum — 36-92 U/L
Phosphorus, serum — 3.0-4.5 mg/dL (0.97-1.45 mmol/L)
Potassium, serum — 3.5-5.0 mEq/L (3.5-5.0 mmol/L)
Prostate-specific antigen, serum — less than 4 ng/mL (4 µg/L)
Protein, serum
  Total — 6.0-7.8 g/dL (60-78 g/L)
  Albumin — 3.5-5.5 g/dL (35-55 g/L)
  Globulins, total — 2.5-3.5 g/dL (25-35 g/L)
Rheumatoid factor — less than 40 U/mL (40 kU/L)
Sodium, serum — 136-145 mEq/L (136-145 mmol/L)
Triglycerides — less than 150 mg/dL (1.69 mmol/L), desirable Troponins, serum
  Troponin I — 0-0.1 ng/mL (0-0.1 µg/L)
  Troponin T — 0-0.1 ng/mL (0-0.1 µg/L)
Urea nitrogen, blood — 8-20 mg/dL (2.9-7.1 mmol/L)
Urate, serum
  Male — 3.7-8.6 mg/dL (0.22-0.50 mmol/L)
  Female — 2.4-5.8 mg/dL (0.14-0.34 mmol/L)
Vitamin B12, serum — 200-800 pg/mL (148-590 pmol/L)

Endocrine
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum — 9-52 pg/mL (2-11 pmol/L)
Aldosterone, serum
  Supine — 2-5 ng/dL (55-138 pmol/L)
  Standing — 7-20 ng/dL (194-554 pmol/L)
Aldosterone, urine — 5-19 µg/24 h (13.9-52.6 nmol/24 h)
Catecholamines, fractionated, urine
  Epinephrine — 2-24 µg/24 h (10.92-131.04 nmol/24 h)
  Norepinephrine — 15-100 µg/24 h (88.65-591 nmol/24 h)
  Dopamine — 52-480 µg/24 h (339.56-3134.4 nmol/24 h)
Cortisol, free, urine — less than 50 µg/24 h (138 nmol/24 h)
Cortisol, serum, morning — 5-25 µg/dL (138-690 nmol/L)
  Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA), plasma
  Male — 1.3-5.5 µg/mL (3.5-14.9 µmol/L)
  Female — 0.6-3.3 µg/mL (1.6-8.9 µmol/L)
Epinephrine, plasma (supine) — less than 75 ng/L (410 pmol/L)
Estradiol, serum
  Male — 10-30 pg/mL (37-110 pmol/L)
  Female — day 1-10, 14-27 pg/mL (50-100 pmol/L); day 11-20, 14-54 pg/mL (50-200 pmol/L); day 21-30, 19-41 pg/mL (70-150 pmol/L)
Follicle-stimulating hormone, serum
  Male (adult) — 5-15 mU/mL (5-15 U/L)
  Female — follicular or luteal phase, 5-20 mU/mL (5-20 U/L); midcycle peak, 30-50 mU/mL (30-50 U/L); postmenopausal, greater than 35 mU/mL (35 U/L)
Growth hormone, plasma — after oral glucose, less than 2 ng/mL (2 µg/L); response to provocative stimuli, greater than 7 ng/mL (7 µg/L)
Hemoglobin A1c, blood — less than 5.7%
Luteinizing hormone, serum
  Male — 3-15 mU/mL (3-15 U/L)
  Female — follicular or luteal phase, 5-22 mU/mL (5-22 U/L); midcycle peak, 30-250 mU/mL (30-250 U/L); post- menopausal, greater than 30 mU/mL (30 U/L)
Metanephrines, fractionated, urine
Metanephrine, unconjugated — 90-315 µg/24 h (456-1597 nmol/24 h)
Normetanephrine — 122-676 µg/24 h (666-3691 nmol/24 h)
Metanephrines, total — 224-832 µg/24 h (1136-4218 nmol/24 h)
Metanephrines, fractionated, plasma
  Metanephrine, free — less than or equal to 57 pg/mL (0.2964 nmol/L)
  Normetanephrine, free — less than or equal to 148 pg/mL (0.8288 nmol/L)
  Metanephrines, total — less than or equal to 205 pg/mL (1.066 nmol/L)
Parathyroid hormone, serum — 10-65 pg/mL (10-65 ng/L)
Progesterone, blood
  Male (adult) — 0.27-0.9 ng/mL (0.9-2.9 nmol/L)
  Female — follicular phase, 0.33-1.20 ng/mL (1.0-3.8 nmol/L); luteal phase, 0.72-17.8 ng/mL (2.3-56.6 nmol/L); postmenopausal, less than 0.2-1   ng/mL (0.6-3.18 nmol/L); oral contraceptives,
      0.34-0.92 ng/mL (1.1-2.9 nmol/L)
Prolactin, serum
  Male — less than 15 ng/mL (15 µg/L)
  Female — less than 20 ng/mL (20 µg/L)
Testosterone, total, serum
  Male (adult) — 300-1200 ng/dL (10-42 nmol/L)
  Female — 20-75 ng/dL (0.7-2.6 nmol/L)
Thyroid function tests
  Thyroid iodine (131I) uptake — 10%-30% of administered dose at 24 h
  Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) — 0.5-5.0 µU/mL (0.5-5.0 mU/L)
Thyroxine (T4)
  Total, serum — 5-12 µg/dL (64-155 nmol/L)
  Free — 0.9-2.4 ng/dL (12-31 pmol/L)
  Free T4 index — 4-11
Triiodothyronine (T3)
  Total, serum — 70-195 ng/dL (1.1-3.0 nmol/L)
  Free — 3.6-5.6 ng/L (5.6-8.6 pmol/L)
Resin uptake — 25%-35%
Vitamin D
  1,25-dihydroxy, serum — 25-65 pg/mL (60-156 pmol/L)
  25-hydroxy, serum — 31-80 ng/mL (77-200 nmol/L)

Urine
Albumin-creatinine ratio — less than 30 mg/g
Calcium — 100-300 mg/24 h (2.5-7.5 mmol/24 h) on unrestricted diet
Creatinine — 15-25 mg/kg per 24 h (133-221 mmol/kg/24 h)
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  Normal
     Male — 130 mL/min/1.73 m2
     Female — 120 mL/min/1.73 m2
  Categories of Chronic Kidney Disease (KDIGO)
      Stage G1 — greater than or equal to 90 mL/min/1.73 m2
      Stage G2 — 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m2
      Stage G3a — 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m2
      Stage G3b — 30-44 mL/min/1.73 m2
      Stage G4 — 15-29 mL/min/1.73 m2
      Stage G5 — less than 15 mL/min/1.73 m2
      Albuminuria categories A1 — less than 30 mg/g A2 — 30-300 mg/g A3 — greater than 300 mg/g
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) — 2-9 mg/24 h (10.4-46.8 µmol/24 h)
Protein-creatinine ratio — less than or equal to 150 mg/g
Sodium — 100-260 mEq/24 h (100-260 mmol/24 h) (varies with intake)
Uric acid — 250-750 mg/24 h (1.48-4.43 mmol/24 h) (varies with diet)

Gastrointestinal
Gastrin, serum — 0-180 pg/mL (0-180 ng/L)
Stool fat — less than 7 g/d on a 100-150 g fat diet
Stool weight — less than 200 g/d

Pulmonary
Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) — greater than 80% of predicted
Forced vital capacity (FVC) — greater than 80% of predicted
FEV1/FVC — greater than 75%

Cerebrospinal Fluid
Cell count — 0-5/µL (0-5 × 106/L)
Glucose — 40-80 mg/dL (2.2-4.4 mmol/L); less than 40% of simultaneous plasma concentration is abnormal
Pressure (opening) — 70-200 mm H2O
Protein — 15-60 mg/dL (150-600 mg/L)

Hemodynamic Measurements
Cardiac index — 2.5-4.2 L/min/m2
Left ventricular ejection fraction — greater than 55%
Pressures
  Pulmonary artery
    Systolic — 20-25 mm Hg
    Diastolic — 5-10 mm Hg
    Mean — 9-16 mm Hg
Pulmonary capillary wedge — 6-12 mm Hg
Right atrium — mean 0-5 mm Hg
Right ventricle
  Systolic — 20-25 mm Hg
  Diastolic — 0-5 mm Hg

 

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